Authors: Gionfriddo JR, Gionfriddo JP, Krohne SG
Publications: J Am Vet Med Assoc 1997;210:1784-1787
Species: Camelids
Diseases: Eye Diseases
OBJECTIVE: To identify ocular and adnexal diseases to which llamas in North America are susceptible, to determine prevalence of these diseases in llamas, and to compare prevalences of the major ocular diseases of llamas, cattle, and horses.

DESIGN: Retrospective study.

ANIMALS: 194 llamas, 4,937 cows, and 11,950 horses with ocular disease.

PROCEDURE: Medical records of all llamas entered into the Veterinary Medical Database between 1980 and 1993 were reviewed. Data on ocular structures affected and types of ocular disease were compiled. Prevalences of uveitis, corneal ulcers, and ocular squamous cell carcinoma in llamas were compared with prevalences in cattle and horses.

RESULTS: 194 of 3,243 (6%) llamas had at least 1 ocular disease. The proportion of llamas that had ocular disease was significantly higher than the proportions of cattle or horses. The most frequently affected ocular structure in llamas was the cornea, and ulcerative keratitis was the most common corneal disease. The second most commonly affected structure was the uveal tract. Cataracts were reported in 20 (10%) of the llamas with ocular problems. Eyelid disorders, retinal diseases, glaucoma, and ocular or adnexal neoplasia were reported infrequently in llamas.

CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Results suggest that corneal disease is common in llamas and is usually secondary to trauma. Uveitis may also be common in llamas, but llamas do not appear to be highly susceptible to glaucoma, ocular neoplasia, or to direct corneal invasion by bacteria such as Moraxella sp.
Date Created : 4/4/2009
Date Updated : 4/4/2009
Back to Results : New Search

Website data maintained at the College of Veterinary Medicine
University of Missouri, Columbia, MO
Allen W. Hahn and Kate Anderson